Battery charging – Battery restriction, Needs for charging power, Power electronic solutions
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Prof. Dirk Uwe Sauer, RWTH Aachen, D
Dirk Uwe Sauer received a diploma degree in physics from University of Darmstadt and a PhD in electrochemistry from University of Ulm. From 1992 until 2003 he worked at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE) in Freiburg, as scientist, project coordinator and finally head of the groups ”Storage Systems” and „Off-grid Power Supply Systems“. In 2003 he was appointed as a Juniorprofessor for “Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems” at RWTH Aachen University (2003) in the Faculty for Electrical Engineering and Information Technology and in 2009 he became Full Professor on the same subject also at RWTH Aachen University.
The research focus is on storage systems in hybrid and full electric vehicles, energy storage in grids with a high penetration of renewable energies including economic analysis, ageing and lifetime prediction of batteries, modelling and diagnostics for batteries, as well as on hardware and methodology for impedance spectroscopy on batteries and fuel cells. The main technologies in focus are lithium-ion batteries, lead-acid batteries, supercaps, redox-flow batteries; concepts and consequences of a CO2-free energy supply.
Full electric driving becomes a most important solution for future clean and sustainable mobility. One of the key success factors is a sufficient charging infrastructure and charging ability of the vehicle batteries. Therefore this tutorial will focus on both, the battery and its recharging ability and the chargers and their requirements towards the grid and their market options.
Vehicle users generally would like to get their battery recharged in very short times. But it is necessary to mention that real fast charging would require a full charging in less than 30 minutes. With regard to the battery this requires a higher power ability of the battery during charging than during discharging. Therefore, batteries which can accept fast charging must be designed accordingly with regard to the battery cell and the battery pack design. The tutorial will discuss appropriate cell designs and battery pack design rules to cope with the fast charging. Most important are thermal issues, because high charging power may overheat the battery and may therefore bear safety risks and lifetime reductions. After a general introduction to lithium-ion battery technology with a focus on all aspects relevant with regard to charging strategies (electrode design, safety issues related to materials and cell design, thermal conductivities and capacity, suitability of different cell designs for fast charging, safety features on cell pack level). Finally the impact of fast charging ability on battery costs will be discussed.
But beside the general wish of users for fast charging it is necessary to be aware of the resulting costs for fast charging stations. Beside the power electronics the costs for the grid infrastructure must be taken into account. It is necessary to analyze under which circumstance in normal use profiles fast charging is really required. This is the basis for the analysis of business models for the operation of fast charging stations, because at the end of the day the total costs for fast charging infrastructure must be refinanced by the users.
Finally the most relevant topologies for charging stations at different power levels will be discussed. This includes a comparison of advantages and disadvantages of the different topologies with regard to costs, robustness and efficiency.
Besides fast charging also the alternative of standard charging with a standard 3.7 kW AC single phase charger will be discussed for comparison throughout all aspects under discussion in the tutorial.
The aim of the tutorial is to make the attendees aware of the complex overall system aspects of vehicle battery charging including the interaction among battery design and charging power, the user needs and the power grid restrictions to some solutions.
Who should attend?
The target audience of this tutorial is battery pack design engineers, engineers and project managers working on electro mobility concepts or power supply grid structures, engineers working on charging hardware, and engineering students, and all other professionals interested in advanced of electro mobility.